The Nehru-Liaquat Pact and After
I am writing to explain the indications I had given of my
view that a change has taken place in the situation owing to
the Nehru-Liaquat Pact making the position I took in the letter
to Dilip6 no longer quite valid and necessitating a halt for a
reconsideration and decision of policy. I gather from what you
have written that you are rather surprised by my view of things
and think that there is no change in the situation; you seem to
regard the Pact as a futile affair not likely to succeed or to make
any change in the situation and foredoomed to speedy failure.
I would like to know what are the grounds for this view if you
really hold it. I am quite prepared to learn that the situation is
quite different from what it seems to be but that must be based
on facts and the facts published in the newspapers or claimed as
true by the Congress leaders point in a different direction. There
seems to be something, initially at least, like a radical change
in the situation and I have to face it, look at the possible and
probable consequences and decide what has to be done.
What was the situation when the Dilip letter was written
and what is it today? At that time everything had been
pushed to a point at which war still seemed inevitable. The
tension between Pakistan and India had grown more and more
intolerable in every aspect, the massacres in East Bengal still
seemed to make war inevitable and the India Government had
just before Nehru’s attempt to patch up a compromise made
ready to march its army over the East Bengal borders once
a few preliminaries had been arranged and war in Kashmir
would have inevitably followed. America and Britain would not
have been able to support Pakistan and, if our information is
correct, had already intimated their inability to prevent India
Government from taking the only possible course open to it in
face of the massacres. In the circumstances the end of Pakistan
would have been the certain consequence of war. The object we
had in view would have been within sight of achievement.
Now all this is changed. After the conclusion of the Pact,
after its acceptance by the Congress Party and the Assembly
and its initial success of organisation and implementation, its
acceptance also in both Western and Eastern Pakistan, no outbreak
of war can take place at least for some time to come and,
unless the Pact fails, it may not take place. That may mean in
certain contingencies the indefinite perpetuation of the existence
of Pakistan and disappearance of the prospect of any unification
of India. I regard the Pact as an exceedingly clever move of
Liaquat Ali to fish his “nation” out of the desperate situation
into which it had run itself and to secure its safe survival. I will
not go elaborately into the reasons for my view and I am quite
prepared for events breaking out which will alter the situation
once more in an opposite sense. But I had to take things as they
are or seem to be, weigh everything and estimate the position and
make my decisions. I will not say more in this letter, though I may
have much to say hereafter: you should be able to understand
from what I have written why I have reversed my course. Our
central object and the real policy of the paper stands, but what
steps have to be taken or can be taken in the new circumstances
can only be seen in the light of future developments.
Meanwhile I await your answer with regard to the question
I have put you. Afterwards I shall write again especially about
the stand to be taken by Mother India.
On Indian and World Events from CWSA Vol 36
6 See the letter of 4 April 1950, published on pages 506 – 7.—Ed. It is below.
To the Editor of Mother India 523
The Present Darkness (April 1950)
You have expressed in one of your letters your sense of the
present darkness in the world round us and this must have been
one of the things that contributed to your being so badly upset
and unable immediately to repel the attack. For myself, the dark
conditions do not discourage me or convince me of the vanity of
my will to “help the world”, for I knew they had to come; they
were there in the world nature and had to rise up so that they
might be exhausted or expelled so that a better world freed from
them might be there. After all, something has been done in the
outer field and that may help or prepare for getting something
done in the inner field also. For instance, India is free and her
freedom was necessary if the divine work was to be done. The
Messages on Indian and World Events 507
difficulties that surround her now and may increase for a time,
especially with regard to the Pakistan imbroglio,were also things
that had to come and to be cleared out.Nehru’s efforts to prevent
the inevitable clash are not likely to succeed formore than a short
time and so it is not necessary to give him the slap you wanted
to go to Delhi and administer to him. Here too there is sure to
be a full clearance, though unfortunately a considerable amount
of human suffering in the process is inevitable. Afterwards the
work for the Divine will become more possible and it may well
be that the dream, if it is a dream, of leading the world towards
the spiritual Light, may even become a reality. So I am not
disposed even now in these dark conditions to consider my will to help the world as condemned to failure.
I (Kittu) got a copy of this interview from Late KD Sethna also known as Amal Kiran. In fact he told me that Munshi went straight to his house soon after the interview and gave this to him.
In the Collected works of Sri Aurobindo the last sentence has been deleted. It can be however still found in the Archives
An Inteview with Sri Aurobindo by KM Munshi
1. Later in 1950. K.M. Munshi came to Pondicherry. He was a former
student of Sri Aurobindo in Baroda. He was fortunate to have an
interview with Sri Aurobindo and he writes:
“Sri Aurobindo was my professor in the Baroda
College, and his militant nationalism of 1904 moulded
my early outlook.
Later, I casually read some of his works. Subsequently
his influence has been coming over upon me intermittently, and more and more perceptibly I have
felt benefited by it.
Often in the past, I wanted to go to Pondicherry, but I
did not wish to offer formal respects to a man whom I
revered so deeply.
When I visited Sri Aurobindo on March 12, 1950, after
a lapse of more than 40 years, I saw before me a
being completely transformed, radiant, blissful,
enveloped in an atmosphere of godlike calm. He spoke
in a low, clear voice, which stirred the depths of my
I talked to him of my spiritual needs. I said: “I am at a
dead end. The world is too much with me”.
The sage replied: “You need not give up the world in
order to advance in self-realisation. But you cannot
advance by impatience. I wrote to you that I would
help you, and in my own way I am helping you…. You
have the urge and the Light. Go your own way. Do not
be deflected from the faith in your natural evolution. I
will watch over your progress.”
Then we discussed Indian culture.
I said: “The younger generation is being fed on theories
and beliefs which are undermining the higher life of
The Master replied: “You must overcome this lack of
faith. Rest assured that our culture cannot be
undermined. This is only a passing phase.”
Then the Mahayogi sprang a surprise on me: ” When
do you expect India to be united?” he asked. I was
taken aback. I explained to him how our leaders had
agreed to partition.
I then said: “So long as the present generation of
politicians is concerned, I cannot think of any time
when the two countries – India and Pakistan – can be
Sri Aurobindo smiled and answered: ” India will be
reunited. I see it clearly.”
Was it an opinion? Was it a clear perception? I shook
my head in doubt and asked how India could be
reunited. In two short sentences the god-man
described what Pakistan stood for, and indicated how
the two countries could come together.”
Pakistan has been created by falsehood, fraud and force. It must be
brought under India’s military ambit.
During the 1965 war, the Mother of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram sent an open message to the
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. The message ran like this: “It is for the sake and the triumph of truth that India is fighting and must fight until India and Pakistan have once more become One because that is the truth of their being”.
The question was asked that if the Security Council orders them to cease-fire, then?
Mother said, “India must still fight. Otherwise she will have to do it all over again“. White roses by Huta p279
3. In 1969, She- Mother- felt it necessary to send a message to the then Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi.
So I had to send someone immediately to tell her, “For heaven’s sake, support the army. It’s India’s only hope. The army is good, but it’s not supported.”
April 19 1969 from the Agenda
4. Letter from Mother to Kittu Reddy:
The disappearance of Pakistan is inevitable; it should already have taken place but human ignorance has delayed it.
ADDENDUM from the Agenda
(Account of N.S.’s visit on April 17, 1969. Mother’s words were noted down in English from memory, and are therefore approximate.)
1. When N.S. spoke of what Indira said about the troubles she is having and the difficulties she is facing and that she wanted the Mother’s help, strength and guidance, the Mother said She knew very well about all this, and that she was constantly giving Her help and blessings to Indira.
2. Regarding the danger of Communism, the Mother said that Communism is a truth that has been distorted and that when the truth comes out, the distortion will fall off. The truth is that all one’s efforts and all one’s work should be turned not to the State, but to the Divine.
3. There is only one country in the world that knows that there is only one Truth to which everything should be turned, and that is India. Other countries have forgotten this, but in India it is ingrained in the people, and one day it will come out.
4. We must all recognize this and work for this. India is the cradle of the Truth and will lead the world to Truth. India will find its real place in the world when it realizes this.
5. The Mother asked N.S. to say to Indira that she should decide to become an obedient, faithful and devoted servant of the Truth and the Truth alone, and then nothing could obstruct her. All outward difficulties and even persons trying to upset her position will not be able to affect her, and if they seem to succeed, if she is firm in her faith and in her devotion to serve the Truth, nothing can prevail against her.
6. To be a true servitor of the Truth one must forget all one’s personal desires and preferences and have only the thought to serve the Truth.
7. The Mother then said to N.S. personally and hoped that the men present would not be offended, that it is only women who know how to use this Power that comes from serving the Truth.
8. The Mother also said to convey to Indira that she must know that the laws of man cannot stand before the laws of the Divine and ultimately it is the laws of the Divine that will prevail.
9. The Mother said that the new Consciousness that has descended on the 1st of January is very active, and that we have come to a very critical time in the history of the world, and it is most interesting to watch how things are happening. This new Consciousness is preparing for the Superman and so there are big changes happening all around. When the first man developed, the animal had no mind and could not appreciate the evolution. Man has mind and can appreciate the evolution. That is why this is the most interesting time in history. If one can stand in that consciousness and watch the happenings from above, one can see how small and futile they are and one can then act upon them with a great Power.
10. The Mother said to N.S. that She wants Indira to continue in her present position because the Mother is able to work through her as she is sincerely trying to serve the country.
11. The Mother said: “I know the conditions of the country. Even if one person could put himself faithfully at the disposal of the Truth, he could change the country and the world.”
12. The Mother said that Auroville is the only hope for preventing a new world war. Tensions are growing and the situation is becoming very critical. But only the Idea of Auroville, if it can become more widespread, can prevent world war.
13. The children who are born at this time are fortunate.